Currently, there are young patients diagnosed with diabetes who experience more serious complications in less time.
Dr. Margarita Ramirez, endocrinologist and LCDA. Valerie Rivera, Dietitian. Photography: Dr. Ramirez, Journal of Medicine and Public Health. Lcda. Rivera, provided by a dietitian.
Puerto Rico It has a prevalence of 18% of diabetic It represents one of the population groups with the highest rate of patients suffering from these diseases that affect blood sugar levels.
Due to the increase in cases and the identification of associated risk factors such as obesity, the Journal of Medicine and Public Health spoke with Dr.. Margherita RamirezAnd the Endocrinologist Director of the Department of Endocrinology at the Campus of Medical Sciences and Lcda. Valerie Riveraa nutritionist, on the causes, diagnosis, incidence, and clinical treatment of these conditions.
According to specialists, diabetic Type 1 occurs when patients have inflammation in the pancreas that prevents it from producing insulin. However, this condition does not have a high incidence. On the other hand, due to obesity, many patients with type 1 diabetes develop distinct manifestations of diabetes. diabetic Type 2, is an alert to clinicians.
Overweight and obesity
The Dr.. Margherita Ramirez It indicates that “80-85% of cases of diabetic Type 2 is due to poor nutrition and weight gain. Genetic factors also influence and the patient’s family history must be taken into account.”
It also confirms that despite the family history factor, a patient who maintains an ideal weight and eats healthy food is less likely to develop diabetic“It’s important for the patient to be aware of this. Just because your mom or dad has diabetes, you shouldn’t end up with diabetes.”
In this sense, specialists emphasize the involvement of the family in the patient’s treatment process diabetic It is necessary to correct eating habits and reduce possible complications, especially when family members are overweight.
“You have to make the patient see how being overweight can affect their quality of life in the long run,” he said Endocrinologistwho had patients with multiple complications who had been amputated and others who had had cardiovascular events due to disease progression.
Another important point is the progress of this condition in children, as Ramirez stresses that if the patient develops diabetic At the age of 40-45 years, serious manifestations will appear, perhaps after the age of seventy. But men who started in their teens, maybe 35, will have dialysis.”
“Right now, what we’re seeing with this obesity in children is that they develop complications much earlier than in typical type 2 diabetics,” he cautioned. Endocrinologist.
The symbiotic relationship between diabetes and nutrition
The diabetic Diet and diet are interrelated, therefore, the patient undergoes treatment diabeticrequires multidisciplinary support from the specialist and the nutritionist, who plays an important role in the success of treatment and referral.
According to nutritionist, Valerie Rivera, the first thing they do when a patient is diagnosed diabetic, not to refer to a strict diet to follow, but first to “know your lifestyle, what you would like to change, tastes, preferences and personal goals”. “We got into this negotiation process, and we made the patient realize that their decisions about eating have consequences in the blood,” he added.
It also highlights that the first step to changing your diet and adopting a healthier lifestyle is to identify the food groups: carbohydrates, proteins, vegetables, fats and dairy products, in addition to choosing foods that provide fiber, because they “favor the glucose level. Moreover, they are important for controlling digestion and satiety.” This helps control weight,” explained the nutritionist.
Regarding recommendations for the amount of fiber consumption, he noted that “there are approximately 12 grams x 1,000 calories, which can be 24 grams for women and 30 grams for men.
In this sense, to avoid obesity and the consequences of poor management diabeticHe explained that it is necessary for patients to change all carbohydrate sources such as rice, bread or pasta, to those foods whose food label indicates they contain 3 grams of fiber or more.
“In this way it is easier for the patient to recognize, for example: if you eat a sandwich for breakfast, do not eat a bunch of fruits, so as not to excrete high sugar spikes, since the drugs do not have the right effect.”
For its part, the Endocrinologist He asserts that they are moving towards recommending plant-based diets and have achieved significant changes in treatment, “there are patients with these dietary changes who have even been able to take off their insulin.”
This suggests that there are chances that patients can reverse course diabetic If they make some changes in their lifestyle, so specialists recommend some basic actions for their implementation:
* Exclude fruit juices. Although the fruits are natural and contain no added sugar, making four ounces of play requires several fruits, which exceed the corresponding servings and remove the fiber. So the ideal thing is to drink vegetable juices and eat fruits.
* Avoid eating cold cereal, especially at night, as this affects blood sugar levels.
* The best plate of food is that half of it contains vegetables, flour, ¼ protein.
With regard to the effects of childhood obesity, they recognize that work must be initiated in various public and private schools to raise awareness about these conditions and long-term risk factors. “Today there is access to education, it is important for parents to be able to research information and make children aware of the texture of vegetables, so that they have the opportunity to learn about the benefits of these foods and reduce the consumption of added sugars,” Rivera added.
As stated by the American Academy of Pediatrics; Children under two years of age should not be given any type of foods containing added sugar due to the risk of this leading to obesity, which is the main factor in the development of diabetic.
On the other hand, physical activity is also essential for a good treatment, the recommended thing is 30 minutes of daily exercise, avoiding carbonated or carbonated drinks and preferably consuming water.
She emphasized that “soft drinks should be eliminated from the diet, including diet sodas that do not contain sugar, but the type of sweetener they use changes the intestinal flora and all changes that occur in the intestinal flora increase obesity.” The Dr.. Margherita Ramirez
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